Political bots

Project on Algorithms, Computational Propaganda, and Digital Politics


Recommended Readings

Ratkiewicz, J., Conover, M., Meiss, M., Goncalves, B., Flammini, A., & Menczer, F. (2011). Detecting and Tracking Political Abuse in Social Media. In ICWSM. Retrieved from http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/ICWSM11/paper/viewFile/2850/3274
Foreman, J. W. (2014). Data smart: using data science to transform information into insight. Wiley.
Metaxas, P. T., Mustafaraj, E., & Gayo-Avello, D. (2011). How (not) to predict elections. In Privacy, security, risk and trust (PASSAT), 2011 IEEE third international conference on and 2011 IEEE third international conference on social computing (SocialCom) (pp. 165–171). Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=6113109
Russell, M. A. (2013). Mining the social web: Data Mining Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+, GitHub, and More. Stebastopol, Calif.: O’Reilly Media.
Mahmood, S. (2012). New privacy threats for Facebook and Twitter users. In P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing (3PGCIC), 2012 Seventh International Conference on (pp. 164–169). Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=6362964
Mahmood, S. (2013). Online Social Networks: Privacy Threats and Defenses. In Security and Privacy Preserving in Social Networks (pp. 47–71). Springer. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-7091-0894-9_2
Wald, R., Khoshgoftaar, T. M., Napolitano, A., & Sumner, C. (2013). Predicting susceptibility to social bots on Twitter. In Information Reuse and Integration (IRI), 2013 IEEE 14th International Conference on (pp. 6–13). IEEE. Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=6642447
McKinney, W. (2012). Python for Data Analysis: Data Wrangling with Pandas, NumPy, and IPython. Stebastopol, Caifornia: O’Reilly Media. Retrieved from http://shop.oreilly.com/product/0636920023784.do
Boshmaf, Y., Muslukhov, I., Beznosov, K., & Ripeanu, M. (2011). The socialbot network: when bots socialize for fame and money. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (pp. 93–102). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2076746
McKelvey, K. R., & Menczer, F. (2013). Truthy: enabling the study of online social networks. In Proceedings of the 2013 conference on Computer supported cooperative work companion (pp. 23–26). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2441962
Ratkiewicz, J., Conover, M., Meiss, M., Goncalves, B., Patil, S., Flammini, A., & Menczer, F. (2011). Truthy: mapping the spread of astroturf in microblog streams. In Proceedings of the 20th international conference companion on World wide web (pp. 249–252). ACM. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1963301
Murthy, D. (2013). Twitter: social communication in the Twitter age. Cambridge: Polity.
Mitter, S., Wagner, C., & Strohmaier, M. (2013). A Categorization Scheme for Socialbot Attacks In Online Social Networks. Presented at the WebSci ’13. Retrieved from http://www.markusstrohmaier.info/documents/2013_WebSci2013_Socialbots_Taxonomy.pdf
Kumar, N., & Reddy, R. N. (2012). Automatic Detection of Fake Profiles in Online Social Networks. Retrieved from http://ethesis.nitrkl.ac.in/3578/
Zhang, J., Zhang, R., Zhang, Y., & Yan, G. (2013). On the impact of social botnets for spam distribution and digital-influence manipulation. In Communications and Network Security (CNS), 2013 IEEE Conference on (pp. 46–54). IEEE. Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=6682691
Liao, W.-H., & Chang, C.-C. (2010). Peer to peer botnet detection using data mining scheme. In Internet Technology and Applications, 2010 International Conference on (pp. 1–4). IEEE. Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5566407
Hwang, T., Pearce, I., & Nanis, M. (2012). Socialbots: Voices from the fronts. Interactions, 19(2), 38–45. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2090161
Metaxas, P. T., & Mustafaraj, E. (2012). Social media and the elections. Science, 338(6106), 472–473. Retrieved from http://www.lawnet.gr/assets/files/somed.pdf
Mustafaraj, E., & Metaxas, P. T. (2011). What Edited Retweets Reveal about Online Political Discourse. In Analyzing Microtext. Retrieved from http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/WS/AAAIW11/paper/viewPDFInterstitial/3980/4329
Wagner, C., Mitter, S., Körner, C., & Strohmaier, M. (2012). When social bots attack: Modeling susceptibility of users in online social networks. In Proceedings of the WWW (Vol. 12). Retrieved from http://www2012.org/proceedings/nocompanion/MSM2012_paper_11.pdf
Beyer, J. L. (2011). Youth and the generation of political consciousness online. University of Washington.
Rosenberg, Y. (2013, December 12–13). 62 percent of all web traffic comes from bots. Retrieved February 15, 2014, from http://theweek.com/article/index/254183/62-percent-of-all-web-traffic-comes-from-bots
2012’s Biggest Social Media Blunders in Latin American Politics — Fusion. (n.d.). Retrieved March 10, 2014, from http://fusion.net/leadership/story/2012s-biggest-social-media-blunders-latin-american-politics-18054
Buying fake “Bots” to beef up social media accounts is a thriving business. (n.d.). Retrieved July 8, 2014, from http://www.thehubcomms.com/buying-fake-bots-to-beef-up-social-media-accounts-is-a-thriving-business/article/343537/
Mac, A. (n.d.). Buying Twitter Followers? Beware StatusPeople, The Service That Exposes Social Media’s Black Market. Retrieved April 24, 2014, from http://www.fastcompany.com/3000359/buying-twitter-followers-beware-statuspeople-service-exposes-social-medias-black-market
Taylor, C. (2012 8–22). Facebook Has 44% Fake Followers; Twitter Has 33%. Retrieved April 24, 2014, from http://mashable.com/2012/08/22/twitter-facebook-fake-followers/
Friends, and Influence, for Sale Online. (n.d.). Retrieved July 8, 2014, from http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/04/20/friends-and-influence-for-sale-online/
GCHQ JTRIG Tools and Techniques for Propaganda and Internet Deception. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2014, from http://hplusmagazine.com/2014/07/16/gchq-jtrig-tools-and-techniques-for-propaganda-and-internet-deception/
http://fakers.statuspeople.com/ – samwooll@uw.edu – UW Mail. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2014, from https://mail.google.com/mail/u/1/#inbox/1458f910bcff0981
Franceschi-Bicchierai, L. (2014 7–23). Propaganda Is the New Frontier for Fake Social Media Accounts. Retrieved July 23, 2014, from http://mashable.com/2014/07/22/propaganda-fake-social-media-accounts/
Robot “pals” are invading social media — and it’s time to unfriend them. (n.d.). Retrieved September 29, 2014, from http://theweek.com/article/index/261034/robot-pals-are-invading-social-media-mdash-and-its-time-to-unfriend-them
Andrea Peterson. (n.d.). The six types of conversations on Twitter. Retrieved March 3, 2014, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-switch/wp/2014/02/20/the-six-types-of-conversations-on-twitter/
Twitter bot catches Russian IP address editing MH17 Wikipedia entry. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2014, from http://theweek.com/speedreads/index/265024/speedreads-twitter-bot-catches-russian-ip-address-editing-mh17-wikipedia-entry
UK’s GCHQ with wide range of hacking, propaganda tools, Snowden archive reveals. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2014, from http://www.techtimes.com/articles/10482/20140718/uks-gchq-with-wide-range-of-hacking-propaganda-tools-snowden-archive-reveals.htm
Press, A. (2014, April 34). US secretly created “Cuban Twitter” to stir unrest and undermine government. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/03/us-cuban-twitter-zunzuneo-stir-unrest
Why fake Twitter accounts are a political problem. (n.d.). Retrieved September 29, 2014, from http://www.newstatesman.com/sci-tech/2014/05/why-fake-twitter-accounts-are-political-problem
Your Big Data Is Worthless if You Don’t Bring It Into the Real World | Opinion. (2014 4–11). Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://www.wired.com/2014/04/your-big-data-is-worthless-if-you-dont-bring-it-into-the-real-world/
Abrams, L. (n.d.). @Oiledits can track industry spin in real time. Retrieved July 23, 2014, from http://www.salon.com/2014/07/21/oiledits_can_track_industry_spin_in_realtime/
Flores, P. (Wed, 12 Feb 202014 GMT). Bots en acción. #GregorioJiménez pic.twitter.com/6v7L0JC1RV [microblog]. Retrieved February 12, 2014, from https://twitter.com/padaguan/status/433398142591979520
Election 2014: Tracking opinion and policy with Twitter bots | Al Jazeera America. (n.d.). Retrieved September 29, 2014, from http://america.aljazeera.com/blogs/scrutineer/2014/6/16/election-2014-trackingcandidateswithtwitterbots.html
Lawrence, D. (2014, June 2). Federal Agents Just Brought Down the World’s Worst Botnet. BusinessWeek: Technology. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-06-02/federal-agents-just-brought-down-the-worlds-worst-botnet?utm_content=buffer023d3&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer
Government Social Media Bots Exposed. (n.d.). Retrieved March 10, 2014, from http://www.christophercantwell.com/2014/02/22/government-social-media-bots-exposed/
How Covert Agents Infiltrate the Internet to Manipulate, Deceive, and Destroy Reputations. (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, 2014, from https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/02/24/jtrig-manipulation/
Monroy, A. (Wed, 12 Feb 202014 GMT). Murder of Mexican journalist trending on Twitter. People find bots supporting official version: “personal vendetta” https://twitter.com/padaguan/status/433398142591979520 … [microblog]. Retrieved February 12, 2014, from https://twitter.com/andresmh/status/433497344777011200
Neyfakh, L. (2014, January 1–14). The botmaker who sees through the Internet – The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 15, 2014, from http://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/2014/01/24/the-botmaker-who-sees-through-internet/V7Qn7HU8TPPl7MSM2TvbsJ/story.html
Sang-hun, C. (2013, December 19). South Korean Officials Accused of Political Meddling. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/20/world/asia/south-korean-cyberwarfare-unit-accused-of-political-meddling.html
From Tinder Bots To “Cuban Twitter”, Welcome To “Cognitive Hacking.” (n.d.). Retrieved July 25, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kashmirhill/2014/04/17/from-tinder-bots-to-covert-social-networks-welcome-to-cognitive-hacking/
correspondent, R. C.-J. T. (n.d.). Facebook details “false” accounts. Retrieved September 29, 2014, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-19093078
EDT, D. S. | 6/11/14 5:18 A. E. U. 6/15/14 8:14 P. (n.d.). Pols have a #fakefollower problem. Retrieved September 29, 2014, from http://www.politico.com/story/2014/06/twitter-politicians-107672.html
ISIS Tries to Outwit Social Networks. (n.d.). Retrieved September 29, 2014, from http://www.vocativ.com/world/syria-world/isis-tries-outwit-social-networks/
Friends, and Influence, for Sale Online. (n.d.). Retrieved September 29, 2014, from http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/04/20/friends-and-influence-for-sale-online/
This Landmark Study Could Reveal How The Web Discriminates Against You. (n.d.). Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/parmyolson/2013/12/02/this-landmark-study-could-reveal-how-the-web-discriminates-against-you/
Your Facebook friends may be evil bots. (2013, April 8). Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.infoworld.com/article/2614095/social-networking/your-facebook-friends-may-be-evil-bots.html
Anti-Abortion Twitter Bot Trolled to Death. (n.d.). Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://jezebel.com/anti-abortion-twitter-bot-trolled-to-death-1638910841
I Am Now Officially a Transphobic Twitter Troll | VICE United Kingdom. (n.d.). Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.vice.com/en_uk/read/whats-the-block-blot-martin-robbins-757
Ten Bots That Make Twitter a Better Place. (n.d.). Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://gadgets.ndtv.com/social-networking/features/ten-bots-that-make-twitter-a-better-place-579944